Understanding NGINX 502 Bad Gateway: PHP-FPM

Why Am I Seeing NGINX 502 Bad Gateway: PHP-FPM?

Table of Contents

Introduction

NGINX Error 502 Bad Gateway is a standard error among website users. There are various possible reasons for this error and different ways to solve it. In this article, we will look at the leading possible causes and how users and web developers can solve them.

                 

Use MetricFire's platform to analyze your system’s performance and troubleshoot errors. Book a demo with our team for more detailed information about MetricFire and how to integrate it with your system; sign up for a MetricFire free trial, or read more about monitoring your NGINX webserver with Telegraf here.

Key Takeaways

  1. NGINX Error 502 Bad Gateway is an error message that indicates the server is receiving an error from another server and cannot connect to PHP-FPM, or PHP-FPM is not responding.
  2. The use of PHP-FPM with NGINX can improve the performance of websites and reduce resource consumption.
  3. Some possible reasons for the error are non-running NGINX or PHP-FPM, firewall blocking requests, the domain name not being allowed, or the server being unavailable.
  4. To solve the error, website visitors can reload the page, clear the browser cache and delete cookies, try using a different browser, or restart the router.
  5. MetricFire's platform can monitor NGINX statuses, and its Telegraf plugin allows users to visualize their NGINX server's status and 502 errors.

What does NGINX 502 Bad Gateway mean?

502 Bad Gateway means that the server you are accessing receives an error from another server. This happens when one server acts as a proxy to receive information from another. When connecting to another server, it returns an error. NGINX returns error 502 if it cannot connect to PHP-FPM or PHP-FPM is not responding.

          

There are different names for the 502 error that you can see on different sites. For example:

  • HTTP Error 502 - Bad Gateway.
  • HTTP 502.
  • 502 Service Temporarily Overloaded.
  • Temporary Error (502).
  • 502 Bad Gateway NGINX.
  • 502 Bad Gateway.
  • Error 502.
  • 502 Proxy Error.

             

Also, the page's appearance that displays the 502 error can be customized on different sites in the same way as it is done for the 404 not found error. There are various causes of error 502. Below, we will examine the main ones and possible ways to fix this error.

                            

What is PHP-FPM used for?

PHP-FPM (PHP-FastCGI Process Manager) is a web request processing tool for PHP applications. With NGINX, PHP-FPM can significantly increase website performance and reduce resource consumption.

                  

If you are using PHP-FPM, PHP works as an isolated service. Web requests are processed over a TCP/IP socket, NGINX only handles HTTP requests, and PHP-FPM interprets PHP code. The use of separate services is essential to improve efficiency.

                                 

                                                     

Possible reasons for 502 Bad Gateway

Let’s take a look at some of the possible reasons for the 502 Bad Gateway.

           

NGINX is not running

If you see error 502, check if NGINX is running. To do this, run the following command:

systemctl status nginx

        

If, in the response, you see that the status is inactive (dead), then you need to start NGINX.

         

PHP-FPM is not running

The following reason for the 502 error is that PHP-FPM is not running. If you are on Linux, you can check if PHP-FPM is running using the following command:

ps aux | grep php-fpm

     

If no PHP-FPM processes are displayed due to this command, you must run PHP-FPM to resolve error 502.

     

PHP-FPM timeout expires

If the server takes too long to respond, a 502 error can be caused by a PHP-FPM timeout. In this case, PHP-FPM closes the connection before the response is sent, and NGINX returns a 502 error. To fix this problem, you can increase the PHP-FPM timeout, or you will have to research your application and figure out why it has not responded for too long.

                         

Firewall blocks requests

A firewall can block communication between the edge servers and the origin server. Some DDoS protection systems or your CMS's security plugins can block server requests.

           

A domain name is not allowed.

The domain name is not resolved to the specified IP address or all IP addresses. In this case, you need to change the DNS server and wait until the changes are propagated and become active globally.

           

Server is unavailable

The original server is down, or there is no connection to this server.

Using MetricFire to monitor NGINX

Did you know you can visualize your NGINX statuses with MetricFire? MetricFire ingests time-series metrics, so as long as your metrics are sent in a format Graphite can ingest, we use a Telegraf NGINX plugin to integrate NGINX with MetricFire. With this agent, you can see the 502 errors and the status of your NGINX servers. To get better insights and solve the 502 errors in your NGINX servers, sign up for a MetricFire 14-day free trial and then follow our tutorial to start sending NGINX data to your account. 

            NGINX Dashboard

How to solve the 502 error?

Most often, the 502 error occurs due to problems on the side of the website. However, there are times when the cause is in the user’s device. You can check if you only have connection problems or if other people cannot establish a connection to this website. To do this, use one of the tools that check the site's status and whether it is working. For example, use one of the following tools or similar ones: isitdownrightnow.com, downforeveryoneorjustme.com. To learn more about the cause of error 502, you can examine the NGINX log file on your computer (/var/log/nginx/error.log).

As visitor

If you are the only one experiencing connectivity issues, there are several things you can do as a website visitor to resolve the 502 error.

  1. Reload the page in the browser. The 502 error is often temporary, and a simple reboot can help.
  2. Clear browser cache and delete cookies. The browser can save old or corrupted files and data that can cause the 502 error.
  3. Try using a different browser. The error may occur in the specific browser you are using, and it will not occur in another browser.
  4. Restart your computer and network equipment. Perhaps this is the problem, and the error will disappear after a reboot.
  5. Check plugins and extensions in your browser. If you use any plugins or extensions and the website works in another browser, they may block the connection. Disable all installed plugins and extensions and recheck the connection.
  6. Change your DNS server. Changing the DNS server may resolve the 502 error. You can choose Open DNS or Google DNS servers.

                

As developer

In most cases, error 502 occurs for all users because the problem is on the website. As a web developer, you can do the following:

  1. Check if your server is available.
  2. Check the firewall logs for unusual crashes.
  3. If you are using Cloudflare, your visitors may receive a 502 Bad Gateway error when a certain limit is reached. Try to disable Cloudflare.

                 

Monitoring your system metrics with Hosted Graphite by MetricFire

To identify bottlenecks and troubleshoot errors such as error 502, it is helpful to monitor the metrics of your system and the technologies you are using in your application. MetricFire has an open-source platform provides the tools to monitor and analyze your system’s metrics. MetricFire offers Hosted Graphite and Hosted GrafanaGrafana is a web-based analytics and data visualization application. It allows you to create customizable dashboards, including diagrams, graphs, and notifications. You can easily monitor your Nginx instance using MetricFire. 

                      

Let's take a look at some of the main features of Grafana:

  1. Dashboard templates. You can design your dashboard using templates as if you were writing code.  With templates, you can use the same design in different environments.
  2. Annotations. You can create logs and comments on your chart manually or automatically.
  3. Custom Plugins. Grafana can install external plug-ins that allow you to expand its basic functionality.
  4. SQL support. With SQL support, you can easily pull data from various data sources.
  5. Alerts. Grafana can send users notifications about essential incidents.

                         

Graphite is a tool for collecting, storing, and processing metrics. It can also be used as a data source for Grafana. Grafana has an advanced Graphite query editor allows you to write various queries, add functions, change function parameters, accept complex nested queries using query links, and much more.

              

Hosted Graphite and Grafana let you track your system performance in real-time. MetricFire offers hosting services for both tools, allowing you to focus on your system’s performance and monitor its metrics in your browser. 

                 

Sign up for the free trial, and experiment with monitoring your NGINX instances using the Telegraft agent today. You can also book a demo and talk to the MetricFire team directly about your monitoring needs.

                                     

Conclusion

In this article, we examined error 502, its possible causes, and options for fixing it. We also concluded that to eliminate errors in your system, it is important to use monitoring tools such as hosted Graphite and Grafana, offered by MetricFire.

          

Book a demo with MetricFire experts or sign up for the free trial today to learn more about our features.

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